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August 15, 2011
Lessons from the Mario Brothers: Finding the Keys to Fighting Fraud
It is a fortunate thing that video games were not yet invented when I was a youngster because I was clearly a candidate for addiction. Even as an adult, I have been sucked into many hours of PacMan (remember?), Mario Brothers, Medal of Honor, Tiger Woods (remember?) Golf, and a wide range of Wii games. Many of these games involve negotiating difficult challenges to get to certain destinations or achieve certain goals necessary to advance to the next level of the game. Jumping, fighting, racing, searching, and other actions were pivotal to avoiding obstacles and a myriad of evildoers to achieve eventual victory.
Although pursuing visionary goals in the payments world is hardly a game, negotiating the landscape of today's payments systems has many of the same challenges and, perhaps, prerequisite skills to achieve success. Focusing the analogy a bit more tightly, the goal of evolving to a "fraud-efficient" or "risk-efficient" payments system is constantly obstructed by any number of challenges and bad actors. It's tempting to hope that we can discover the one secret key that allows us to advance to a new level, but it's increasingly obvious to me that several high-level strategic initiatives must be adopted to vanquish our demons. Let me illustrate.
Measuring the level of distress is critical
A key survival strategy in many video games that involve fighting or racing is to measure what resources you have left. A visible "meter" of strength or inventory of weapons is available, and certain actions can replenish resources. In the U.S. payments system, we are constantly engaged in addressing new attacks and making investments of resources, but for the most part, we do not have good measures of the level of fraud costs and fraud losses, nor do we have a very good appreciation of the magnitude of future risks. Some of this confusion is just environmental uncertainty, but some comes from the lack of any type of comprehensive and statistically credible fraud data that can then be used to assess future investment options. Progress in addressing the lack of central data, whether it comes from industry- or government-led initiatives, will be a pivotal element in driving future actions.
Realigning incentives and disincentives can rationalize change
A lot of electronic games provide incentives to players to take somewhat riskier courses of action in order to obtain bonus points, protective gear, or more powerful weapons that can lower future risks. Those who choose not to do so are generally exposed to greater vulnerabilities or liabilities than those who have invested. The same holds true in payments, where those who have invested more aggressively in fraud mitigation tend to have better results, while others suffer more heavily. However, many of the current approaches to absorbing risk do not seem to allocate the costs of fraud management to those who are in the best position to prevent it, thereby distorting business cases for change. Historically, markets in the aggregate react rationally and predictably to the proper use of incentives and disincentives directed at achieving specific strategic goals. Given increasing fraud trends and the changing economics of the payments industry, it is time for all parties to rebase their business cases around fraud and consider the use of meaningful incentives to drive behavior.
Removing silo walls to pursue overall industry goals
Rigid silos of operation and responsibility have hampered recent efforts to enhance the efficiency and integrity of the payment system within individual organizations and across payment options. Many organizations, particularly in the banking space, find themselves organized to promote the attainment of very specific goals within business silos, as opposed to maximizing the bottom line of the whole organization. Many video games teach us to find allies of like mind to strengthen our forces—or, in games like SimCity (or FarmVille!), to acquire various diverse resources and blend them into a greater whole. Creating an organizational structure with one executive responsible for all payments and related risk will ensure that everyone pursues the overall corporate strategies and financial goals rather than the goals of individual units. At the industry level, fostering better sharing of fraud information across industry payment silos is needed to attack bad actors that simply move to the channel of least resistance.
Self-regulation versus government help: The best defense is a good offense
Over the past three years, we have witnessed a greater enthusiasm in Washington to address emerging problems in our payments systems. This is largely because the outcry about unfair practices reached the halls of Congress, which then acted by passing the CARD Act, overdraft legislation, and the Durbin interchange amendment. Most video games I have played reward smart offensive action as opposed to defensive approaches. It is increasingly clear to me that there is room for the payments industry to develop guidelines, rules, and best practices that can mitigate the possibility that government might choose to "help," particularly in the area of protecting consumers and even as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau gears up to implement their new rule. Taking the offensive with creative "self-regulation" has resulted in better outcomes in other countries.
Getting it done
The question then becomes, "Who should instigate these actions?" It is tempting to answer, "Anyone who cares." However, a better and more directed answer might be: key industry players or associations that represent widespread constituencies and can bring the power of aggregate thinking and decision making to the table.
Visa just announced that it would be moving to EMV-compliant chip technology for cards and mobile phones. This decision is a clear example of an effort to move the ball in the direction I just talked about. Don't get me wrong. Not everyone in the ecosystem will be happy about the way that Visa is going about it, but Visa is defining a roadmap for implementing more secure technologies—the company is clearly playing offense—and creating a system of incentives that will help the program move forward.
By Rich Oliver, executive vice president of the Atlanta Fed and director of the Retail Payments Risk Forum
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